Ancestral Wellness

Ancestral Wellness

HISTORICAL REVIEW

Quito of the Pre-Inca period

The existence of an ancestral population that occupied the current city of Quito and its surrounding valleys, has been recognized long before the arrival of the Incas. It is also true that there is still no consensus among the scholars of Quito on the type of settlement and the level of social, political, administrative and religious significance it had, due to the scarcity of architectural archaeological remains. For example, we have opinions like those of Jorge Trujillo, who affirms that Quito was: “A symbolic space, endowed with various meanings. As a geographical space it has these limits: to the north with the equinoctial line (Middle of the World) to the south, the plains that extend from the Panecillo or Yavirac. To the west, the entrance to the land of the western yumbos: Calacalí, Lloa and Tambillo. To the east, the accesses to the lands of the eastern yumbos: Oyacachi, Papallacta and Pintag”. It includes the vicinity or areas of the imaginary equator. Therefore, it also includes the access corridors to the areas of the slope of the western mountain range, which flow into the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. In the east, the limits reach the heights of the Napo and Marañón River basins” (quote: Trujillo, 2008: 299-300).

Bibliographic source / Archaeological Atlas of the DMQ

Bibliographic source / Archaeological Atlas of the DMQ

Yumbo Culture:

The “Country of the Yumbos” was located in the mountainous territory to the west of the province of Pichincha. The old towns of Calacalí, Mindo, Nanegal, Nono and Lloa, and others -already disappeared- such as Alambí, Llambo and Cachillacta were protohistoric settlements of the Yumbos. Catacoto deserves special mention, since, despite having been very important during the colony, it also disappeared.

The archaeologist Holguer Jara, has dedicated several years to the investigation and study of the Yumbos people. He maintains that this culture disappeared in the mid-17th century due to eruptions of neighboring volcanoes Pichincha and Pululahua. Those who survived these catastrophes had to go up the mountains in search of safer land in the Amazon, where there are still human settlements belonging to that culture. They only remember by tradition, that they come from the other side of the mountains.

What are Culuncos?

They are the Pre-Inca roads that remain intact in the northwest of Pichincha. They are part of the Yumbo culture.

These trails are witnesses of a commercial organization that developed between 800 A.D. until the Spanish conquest. The Culuncos are hidden within the dense vegetation on the slopes of the mountains. They extend from the Highlands to the Coast and over the years they became the paths of the Spanish conquerors, republicans, loggers and liquor dealers. These paths still exist.

What are Petroglyphs?Petroglyphs (rock engravings) are symbolic designs engraved onrocks,which were made by wearing down their surface layer. Many were man-made in the Neolithic period.

Bibliographic source: El Comercio

ANDEAN PEOPLE WORLDVIEW

In order to understand the religious thought of ancient indigenous societies, we must first understand some of its characteristics: First, the way in which our ancestors defined the cosmos. They considered the Universe as an organized and harmonious whole, made up of three superimposed levels, that is, three parallel worlds united thanks to an axis, or axis mundi. In the world above or Superworld, inhabited the Gods and spirits. Second: the middle world, where living beings, including plants, animals and humans lived. Third: the world below or the underworld, where the ancestors (Ucuyaya), the deceased and other powerful spirits associated with death and fertility were.

The continuity of life depended on the constant flow of vital forces through these worlds.

According to the indigenous thought, the spirits of the primary world created the cosmos with numerous overlapping layers that by then were represented in three groups:

Hanan Pacha or the heavenly world:

World from above or above the world, where are the air and the spirits or Gods. This world is luminous, arid, hot, masculine, rational and linear. It is the domain of solar animals, such as eagles, buzzards or jaguars, in their solar form.

Kay Pacha or the middle world: That is, our world, where minerals, plants, animals and human beings live in intimate connection. It includes the sky in which the sun and the stars roam. It is also a transit place for the beings of the parallel worlds.

Uku Pacha or Underworld: The world below, where the spirits related to death and fertility live, along with water animals such as: amphibians, snakes, bats and night jaguars. They were associated with sexuality and instincts. This world is dark, wet, cold, feminine, intuitive, and circular.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Quito Turismo has designed three tourist routes to discover the ancestral richness of the Yumbo Culture: we invite you to discover, feel and appreciate this ancient ethnic group of our city.

You will have the opportunity to cross the ancient paths, learn the traditional history of the Yumbos and, above all, fill yourself with the energy that these magical places of the rurality of Quito provide. Meet our communities, tourism associations and cultural groups in the rural parishes of Quito.

DEVELOPED PROJECTS

DMQ ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES:

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL PARK RUMIPAMBA

The park is approximately 40 hectares in size. Here, since 2001, cultural remains of pre-Hispanic times have been found, mostly architectural remains. The site is named after the Rumipamba gorge (stone plain) that rises on the western flanks of the Pichincha volcano and runs through this sector.

  • Nuño de Valderrama Street, in front of Casa de la Música.
  • +593 2 242 313
  • Wednesday to Sunday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
  • For student visits, a prior reservation must be made to the contact telephone number.
  • Free

TULIPE SITE MUSEUM

Tulipe means “water that comes down from the tolas (tombs)”. It is a subtropical sanctuary open to the public, where you can deepen our knowledge about the history of the Yumbos people. They embodied their knowledge of architecture and geometry in monumental structures to honor their gods with purification rites.

  • Kilometer 60 of the Calacalí - La Independencia Road. Then take the “La Armenia- Pacto” road, 9 km to Tulipe, following the paved road.
  • +593 3 629 605
  • Wednesday to Sunday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
  • For student visits, a prior reservation must be made to the contact telephone number.
  • $ 3.00 Adults $ 1.00 Children and Seniors

LA FLORIDA SITE MUSEUM

The La Florida Site Museum was opened in 2009. In this place, the public can learn about the history of the Quitu people. The exhibition displays recovered architectural, funeral and cultural pieces.

  • Calle Antonio Costas and César Villacrés- Sector La Florida, Barrio San Vicente.
  • +593 3 803 043 – +593 2 242 313
  • Wednesday to Sunday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
  • For student visits, a reservation must be made in advance to the contact numbers.
  • Free

PUCARÁ DE RUMICUCHO

Rumicucho in Quichua means “stone corner”. These archaeological ruins are located north of Quito, where we can clearly know what a temple dedicated to the Sun God was like.

From its privileged location, you can see the La Marca hill and the Cayambe volcano, which form a horizontal east – west line, which marks the exact place where the Sun passes through at its equinox.

  • San Antonio Parish, Las Canteras sector, 4 km. of the road that leads to San José de Minas and Perucho
  • +593 98 864 0050
  • Monday to Sunday from 9:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
  • For student visits, a reservation must be made in advance to the contact number.
  • Adults $ 1.00, children and seniors, free admission

PERUCHO ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

It is located in the north center of Quito, in the Perucho parish. It is the place to learn about the Piruchana Culture.

The exhibition has archaeological pieces and models of this important culture, which are exhibited in this new cultural alternative place in north-central Quito.

  • Perucho Parish, next to the parish church
  • +593 98 447 4148
  • From Friday to Sunday from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
  • For student visits, a prior reservation must be made to the contact number.
  • General admission $ 2.00

Estructuración de Guion Turístico/Arqueológico

El levantamiento de la información se realizó en conjunto con el Instituto Metropolitano de Patrimonio IMP y Quito Turismo.

Guion turístico reconocimiento arqueológico del Culunco-Guantopungo-Pelagallo, ubicado en la parroquia de Calacalí

Está ubicada al noroccidente de Pichincha en la Parroquia de Calacalí, zona que ha jugado un rol muy importante dentro del proceso histórico cultural. Las razones son la presencia del pueblo Yumbo y su estratégica ubicación que permitía a diferentes pueblos de la costa y sierra ecuatorianas, intercambiar (o realizar trueque como se conoce técnicamente). La enorme variedad de productos con los que se contaba, sean estas cerámicas, herramientas, productos agrícolas, etc.

Si se preguntan: ¿cómo realizaban estos intercambios? La respuesta está bajo sus pies. Los pueblos hacían uso de Culuncos, lo cual era la conexión para las diferentes regiones y pueblos del Ecuador. Su uso tenía objetivos comerciales. Estos caminos formados a manera de trinchera con paredes de tierra de 3 a 4 metros de alto, no sólo articulaban redes comerciales, también se vinculaban con la arquitectura simbólica del paisaje.

Tenemos una privilegiada visión paisajística en la zona de los culuncos, además de estar cerca del bosque protector del río Guayllabamba, la reserva geobotánica Pululahua y el Bosque nublado de Yunguilla. Esto es evidencia de la mega diversidad existente (especialmente por su abundante fauna de aves). Respecto a flora, la zona tiene arrayanes, orquídeas, cedro, uña de gato, bromelias, chilca, cauchín, mora, mortiño, valeriana, entre muchas otras. Con relación a la fauna existen: ardillas, armadillos, guantas, murciélagos, osos de anteojos, pumas, cabeza de mate, venados, águilas, búhos, pájaros carpinteros, gallo de peña, colibríes, gavilanes, entre más especies.

En la época de los Culuncos los elegidos para atravesar los caminos, eran los más fuertes, ya que para realizar los trueques – cambios, debían llevar objetos pesados por largas distancias que les tomaba días, semanas e incluso meses. Estos comerciantes eran conocidos como Mindalaes y Cachas.

Ubiquémonos 10.000 años en el pasado, en un período conocido como Pre-cerámico. Las sociedades eran nómadas, cazadores y recolectores. En esos tiempos donde ya existía el trueque y el principal producto de la sierra era la obsidiana (roca de vidrio volcánico), sin embargo, se encuentra evidencias arqueológicas en la costa, dando como evidencia así el intercambio comercial.

Hace 5.500 años aproximadamente, un hito importante nos envuelve, el cual origina los inicios de la agricultura, permitiendo, a las sociedades volverse sedentarias.

El intercambio con la costa sigue, de lo que se hallaron objetos antiguos de influencia costeña de lo que se cree pertenecían a cultura Chorrera, hechos con cerámica y lítica, en las zonas de Cotocollao (Altiplano de Quito) y Nueva Era o en Tulipe (Noroccidente de Quito). También se encontraron objetos de obsidiana en la costa, lo cual supone que el intercambio interregional era permanente.

Lastimosamente un evento natural afectó a varias zonas. La erupción del volcán Pululahua ocurrida hace 2.500 años dejó gran parte de la zona cubierta de ceniza, afectando a los sitios arqueológicos y obligando la migración de las poblaciones. Cerca de 1.000 años tomo para que las zonas fueran nuevamente pobladas y retomar la organización social existente, incluyendo el intercambio de productos entre costa y sierra.  

Otros vestigios de elementos cerámicos de influencia costeña fueron encontrados en el valle de Quito (Cotocog y Jardines del Este en Cumbayá).

En el período de Integración que data de los años 500 hasta el 1.500 D.C, fue una época de consolidación para la sociedad Yumbo. En la parte alta y media del bosque nublado, tenían una extensión territorial de 900 km2 y eran una organización compleja, estructurada por cacicazgos. Aquí la red de culuncos, que tenía conexión entre Mindalaes y Cachas, servían para el intercambio de productos como: papas, maíz, quinua (zonas altas), algodón, coca y ají (zonas bajas), además del intercambio con la concha Spondylus (Costa), obsidiana. En ese entonces se mantenía una relación equilibrada y respetuosa entre los pueblos.

La cerámica del pueblo Yumbo está constituida por una variedad de vasijas como cántaros, ollas, torteros, compoteras, cuencos y platos. Las superficies exteriores de las mismas están alisadas, algunas pulidas y decoradas con engobe (capa fina de pintura).

Los Yumbo también construyeron tolas o montículos artificiales, interrelacionados entre sí, las cuales representaban jerarquía social o se les daba el uso para rituales funerarios. Se evidencia el contacto con diferentes pueblos debido a que sus tolas y arqueología jeroglífica demuestra la influencia de distintos pueblos. En Cochasquí (tolas como pirámides con plataformas) y de la Amazonía (diseños en piedra con formas antropomorfas o humanas y zoomorfas o de animales).

La conquista Inca significó un ligero cambio al uso de los culuncos, pues la dominación y control se estableció, sobre las zonas migratorias y comerciales cerca de los ríos Alambi, Tulipe y Guayllabamba, consolidándose la presencia Inca. Como prueba arqueológica están los Baños del Inca en Tulipe.

Finalmente, con la Colonia y la República se rompe totalmente la dinámica comercial y la cosmovisión andina. Se impone pagos de productos por dinero, y se hace uso de los culuncos para transportar aguardiente (licor) y madera. Esto propició el contrabando, estableciendo una dinámica capitalista.

SHORT PLANNER

If you have a morning:

  • Rumipamba Archaeological and Ecological Park
  • Florida Site Museum
  • Pucará de Rumicucho

If you have a day:

  • Yunguilla + Tulipe Site Museum
  • Culunco de la Armenia
  • Pucará de Rumicucho + Agave Museum + La Florida Site Museum

If you have two or three days:

  • Pucará de Rumicucho + Yunguilla + Museo de Sitio Tulipe + Pacto Loma
  • Rumipamba Archaeological and Ecological Park + Culunco de la Armenia + Yumbo Spa
  • Rumipamba Archaeological and Ecological Park + Culunco de la Armenia + Yumbo Spa
  • +593 2993300
  • mercadeo@quito-turismo.gob.ec
  • Passage Oe3 Río Amazonas N51-20 & Street N50B
    Old airport, Quito

© All rights reserved

Quito Turismo - Visit Quito

  • +593 2993300
  • mercadeo@quito-turismo.gob.ec
  • Passage Oe3 Río Amazonas N51-20 & Street N50B
    Old airport, Quito

© All rights reserved

Quito Turismo - Visit Quito